The Homeland: In the footprints of the early Indo-Europeans Funded by the Carlsberg Foundation UK logo    Legend · Comments · References

Mapping and programming by Mikkel Nørtoft. The technical functionalities of the timemap have been made with the generous help of Lê Nguyên Phương Thanh. The timebar is modified from Jonathan Skeate’s Leaflet.timeline.

Legend

Blue circle EHG (Eastern Hunter-Gatherers)
Pink circle WHG (Western Hunter-Gatherers)
Orange circle CHG (Caucasian Hunter-Gatherers) and Iran Mesolithic, Iran Neolithic, Iran Chalcolithic, etc.
Yellow circle Anatolian farmers, also known as EEF (Early European Farmers)
Green circle Levant farmers, including Natufian culture
Turquoise circle SHG (Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers), mix of EHG + WHG
Red square Steppe-derived R1a lineages, Y-DNA (males) defined as EHG with CHG admixture. Defining subclade SNP in ( ). See R1 tree for chronological context
Red triangle Steppe-derived R1b lineages, Y-DNA (males) defined as EHG with CHG admixture. Defining subclade SNP in ( ). See R1 tree for chronological context
Red circle Steppe-derived autosomal DNA ancestry, including females defined as EHG with CHG admixture)
Transparent circle The individual's ancestry is uncertain/unspecified
Grey star Equal mix of ancestry in an individual (see individual comments)
White sheep Confirmed finds of wool
Transparent sheep (transparent) Unconfirmed/controversial finds of wool and zooarchaeological indications of wool production (see individual comments and references)
White wheel Confirmed finds of wheels
Transparent wheel (transparent) Unconfirmed/controversial finds of wheels and/or clay models of wagons suggested to have had wheels (see individual comments and references)

Comments

The interactive map is one of the outcomes of the research project “The Homeland: In the footprints of the early Indo-Europeans” (2015–2018), funded by the Carlsberg Foundation. The Homeland project is based at the Roots of Europe Centre, Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics, University of Copenhagen.

Each coloured dot on this map is an ancient individual sampled for DNA. The duration a dot's presence on the map does NOT reflect the lifetime of an individual, but reflects only the estimated date of the individual's death/burial (from C14-dating or context/stratigraphy). The same goes for wheels and wool/animal bones. Most dates are estimated within a few hundred years (C14), while some (context/stratigraphy) are more broadly estimated. Therefore, some icons/dots on the map with long duration reflect a very broad dating, and their presence on the map should not be taken literally. Click each feature for additional information and references.

The DNA data is collected from supplementary info and tables from various peer-reviewed articles. Most of the European Bronze Age wool is extracted and modified (given absolute dates from their reported relative dates) from the CinBA project, and the rest (including all zooarchaeological indications of wool, as well as wheel data) has been mapped manually by Mikkel Nørtoft from various articles.

The DNA layer of this map focuses on prehistoric migrations. Therefore, change in population ancestry in a region caused by intrusive individuals is weighted higher when determining the colour of a dot, although some local ancestry is retained. For example, most Bell Beaker individuals of Europe retain both some of the region's earlier hunter-gatherer, and some Anatolian farmer, ancestry (c. 50% total), but their steppe ancestry (c. 50%) which is intrusive to the region, along with the steppe ancestry in Corded Ware individuals (c. 75% steppe) in Europe, determines their colour as red.

The same goes for intrusive Anatolian farmer ancestry in the early Neolithic period of Europe, which is yellow (farmer), although it retains some local hunter-gatherer ancestry, because the farmers are intrusive to Europe. Special cases of resurgence of local ancestry after arrival of foreigners can differ from this rule, and will usually feature a special comment about this.

Therefore, it should be understood that most of the individuals on this map have various mixes of ancestry, although they are only portrayed by one colour.

Also, lack of data (DNA, wool or wheels) is not evidence that these things were not present in a region, only that they have not been preserved and/or excavated and published. The burial and soil conditions in Bronze Age Denmark, for example, are extraordinarily effective for preserving wool. That is why most of the wool from 1500-1100 BCE clusters around Denmark. On the other hand, these circumstances are bad for preserving DNA, which is why DNA evidence is scarce in Denmark (so far).



References

DNA (as it appears in the published supplementary data tables)

AllentoftNature2015: Allentoft, M. E. et al. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522, 167–172 (2015).

CassidyPNAS2016: Cassidy, L. M. et al. Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 368–373 (2016).

FuNature2016: Fu, Q. et al. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe. Nature 534, 200–205 (2016).

Gamba2014: Gamba, C. et al. Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory. Nat. Commun. 5, 5257 (2014).

GuntherPNAS2015: Günther, T. et al. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 11917–11922 (2015).

HaakLazaridis2015: Haak, W. et al. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522, 207–211 (2015).

HofmanovaPNAS2016: Hofmanová, Z. et al. Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6886–6891 (2016).

JonesNatureCommunications2015: Jones, E. R. et al. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians. Nat. Commun. 6, 8912 (2015).

JonesNatureCommunications2017: Jones, E. R. et al. The Neolithic transition in the Baltic was not driven by admixture with early European farmers. Curr. Biol. 27, 576–582 (2017).

KellerNatureCommunications2014: Keller, A. et al. New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman’s origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing. Nat. Commun. 3, 698 (2012).

KilincCurrentBiology2016: Kılınç, G. M. et al. The demographic development of the first farmers in Anatolia. Curr. Biol. 26, 2659–2666 (2016).

LazaridisNature2014: Lazaridis, I. et al. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513, 409–413 (2014).

Lazaridis2016: Lazaridis, I. et al. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536, 419–424 (2016).

Lazaridis et al 2017: Lazaridis, I. et al. Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans. Nature 548, 214–218 (2017).

Li et al. 2010: Li et al. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age. BMC Biology 8(15) (2010).

Lipson2017: Lipson, M. et al. Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers. Nature 551, 368–372 (2017).

LlorenteScience2015: Gallego Llorente, M. et al. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa. Science 350, 820–822 (2015).

MathiesonNature2015: Mathieson, Iain, et al. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature 528, 499–503 (2015).

Mathieson2017: Mathieson, Iain, et al. The genomic history of southeastern Europe (preprint, 2nd ed. Sept. 19). BioRxiv.

Mathieson et al. 2018: Mathieson, Iain, et al. The genomic history of southeastern Europe. Nature 555, pp. 197–203 (08 March 2018).

Mittnik et al. 2018: Alissa Mittnik et al. 2018. The genetic prehistory of the Baltic Sea region. Nature Communications 9 (1), (2018).

Olalde2014: Olalde, I. et al. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European. Nature 507, 225–228 (2014).

OlaldeMBE2015: Olalde, I. et al. A common genetic origin for early farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and central European LBK cultures. Mol. Biol. Evol. 32, 3132–3142 (2015).

Olalde et al. 2018: The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe. Nature 555, pages 190–196 (08 March 2018).

OmrakCurrentBiology2016: Omrak, A. et al. Genomic evidence establishes Anatolia as the source of the European Neolithic gene pool. Curr. Biol. 26, 270–275 (2016).

SkoglundScience2014: Skoglund, P. et al. Genomic diversity and admixture differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian foragers and farmers. Science 344, 747–750 (2014).

Unterländer et al 2017: Unterländer, Martina, et al. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe. Nature Communications 8 (14615) (March 2017).

 

Wheels

Bakker, Jan Albert et al. 1999. The earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles in Europe and the Near East. Antiquity 73, 778–90.

Burmeister, Stefan 2004. Neolithische und bronzezeitliche Moorfunde aus den Niederlanden, Nordwestdeutschland und Dänemark. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 321–340.

Butterlin, P. and Magueron, J.-C. 2006. Deux roues à Mari et le problème de l'invention de la roue en Mésopotamie. In: P. Pétrequin, R.-M. Arbogast, A.-M. Pétrequin, S.V. Willigen & M. Bailly (eds) Premiers chariots, premier araires. La diffusion de la traction animale en Europe pendant les IVe et IIIe millénaires avant notre ère. Paris: CNRS, pp. 317-328.

Cosma, C. et al. 2006. Preliminary dating results for ancient ceramics from Romania by means of thermoluminescence. Radiation Measurements 41, pp. 987-990.

Dinu, Marin 1981: Clay models of wheels discovered in Copper Age cultures of Old Europe mid-fifth mellennium B.C. JIES 9 (1&2), pp. 1-14.

Gej, Aleksandr N. 2004. Der Wagen in der Novotitarovskaja-Kultur. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 177-190.

Johannsen, N and Laursen, S. 2010. Routes and wheeled transport in late 4th–early 3rd millennium funerary customs of the Jutland peninsula: regional evidence and European Context. Prähistorische Zeitschrift 85, pp. 15–58.

Maran, Joseph 2004. Kulturkontakte und Wege der Ausbreitung der Wagentechnologie im 4. Jahrtausend v. Chr.. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 429–42

Mischka, Doris 2011. The Neolithic burial sequence at Flintbek LA 3, north Germany, and its cart tracks: a precise chronology. Antiquity 85, pp. 742–758 (including supplementary data).

Nikolova, N.V. and Kaiser, E. 2009. The absolute chronology of the Pit Grave culture in the northern Black Sea area on the base of the first dendrochronological data. Eurasia Antiqua 15, pp. 209–240.

Parpola, Asko 2008. Proto-Indo-European speakers of the late Tripolye Culture as the inventors of wheeled vehicles: linguistic and archaeological considerations of the PIE homeland problem. In. Karlene Jones-Bley, et al. (eds) Proceedings of the 19th Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference, Los Angeles, November 2-3, 2007. (JIES Monograph 54). Washington D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, pp. 1-59.

Reingruber, Agathe and Rassamakin, Juri 2016. Zwischen Donau und Kuban: Das nordpontische Steppengebiet im 5. Jt. v. Chr. In: Vassil Nikolov and Wolfram Schier (eds) Der Schwarzmeerraum vom Neolithikum bis in die Früheisenzeit (6000–600 v. Chr.). Kulturelle Interferenzen in der zirkumpontischen Zone und Kontakte mit ihren Nachbargebieten. Rahden/Westf.: Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH, pp. 273-310.

Ruoff, U. and Jacomet, S. 2002. Die Datierung des Rades von Zürich-Akad und die stratigraphische Beziehung zu den Rädern von Zürich-Pressehaus. In: J. Köninger, M. Mainberger, H. Schlichtherle & M. Vosteen (eds) Schleife, Schlitten, Rad und Wagen. Zur Frage früher Transportmittel nördlich der Alpen. Rundgespräch Hemmenhofen 10. Oktober 2001 (Hemmenhofener Skripte 3). Gaienhofen-Hemmenhofen: Janus, pp. 35–7.

Shishlina, Natalia I. et al. 2014. Catacomb culture wagons of the Eurasian steppes. Antiquity 88, pp. 378-394.

Trifonov, V. 2004. Die Majkop-Kultur und die ersten Wagen in der südrussischen Steppe. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 167-176.


Wool (and zooarchaeology)

CinBA (HERA-funded project) - Dataset of Bronze Age wool. Bibliography of the project can be downloaded here: http://cinba.net/outputs/databases/textiles/

Andersson Strand, Eva 2014. Sheep, wool and textile production. An interdisciplinary approach to the complexity of wool working. In: Catherine Breniquet & Cécile Michel (eds) Wool economy in the ancient Near East and the Aegean: From the beginnings of sheep husbandry to institutional textile industry. Oxford & Philadelphia: Oxbow Books. pp. 41-51.

Anthony, David W. and Dorcas R. Brown 2003. Eneolithic Horse Rituals and Riding in the Steppes: New Evidence. In: Marsha Levine, Colin Renfrew and Katire Boyle (eds). Prehistoric steppe adaptation and the horse. Cambride: McDonalds Institute for Archaeological Research. pp. 55-68.

Anthony, David W. 2007. The horse, the wheel and language. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Anthony, David W. et al. (eds) 2016. A Bronze Age landscape in the Russian steppes: the Samara Valley Project (Monumenta Archaeologica 37). UCLA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeological Press.

Anthony, David W. and Dorcas R. Brown 2017. Molecular archaeology and Indo-European linguistics: Impressions from new data. In Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard Hansen, Adam Hyllested, Anders Richardt Jørgensen et al. (eds), Usque ad Radices - Indo-European studies in honour of Birgit Annette Olsen, (Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European 8). Viborg, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 25–55.

Arbuckle, Benjamin S. 2014. Inequality and the origns of wool production in Central Anatolia. In: Benjamin S. Arbuckle and Sue Ann McCarty (eds) Animals and inequality in the ancient world. Boulder, CO.: University Press of Colorado.

Badalyan, Ruben, Pierre Lombard, Pavel Avetisyan et al. 2007. New data on the late prehistory of the southern Caucasus. The excavations at Aratashen (Armenia): preliminary report. In: Bertille Lyonnet (ed.) Les cultures du Caucase (VIIe-IIIe millénaires avant notre ére): Leurs relations avec le Proche-Orient. Paris: CNRS Editions. pp. 37-63.

Bălăşescu, Adrian, Emmanuelle Vila, Valentin Radu et al. 2010. Production animale et économie de subsistance au Néolithique dans la plaine del'Ararat (Arménie). Annales d’Université Valahia Târgoviste. Section d’Archéologie et d’Histoire XII (1). pp. 25-38.

Barber, Elizabeth. J. W. 1991. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Barber, Elizabeth. J. W. 1999. The mummies of Ürümchi. New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company

Bazzanella, Marta 2012. Italy: Neolithic and Bronze Age. In: Margarita Gleba and Ulla Mannering (eds) Textiles and Textiles Production in Europe: from Prehistory to AD 400. (Ancient Textiles Series 11). Oxford and Oakville: Oxbow Books, pp. 203-213.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise 1992. North European textiles until AD 1000. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise, Antoinette Rast-Eicher 2015. Searching for the earliest wools in Europe. In: K. Grömer & F. Pritchard (eds) Aspects of the Design, Production and Use of Textiles and Clothing from the Bronze Age to the Early Modern Era (NESAT XII). pp. 67-72.

Car, G. 2012. Konservatorsko-restauratorski radovi na prapovijesnom grobnom tekstilu iz tumula u Pustopolju Kupreškom. Portal 3/2012, pp. 69-80.

Darden, Bill 2001. On the question of the Anatolian origin of Indo-Hittite. In: Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite language family (Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph 38). pp. 184-228

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Frei, Karin Margarita, Ulla Mannering, Kristian Kristiansen, et al. 2015. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female. Scientific Reports 5.

Frei, Karin Margarita, Ulla Mannering, Ina Vanden Berghe & Kristian Kristiansen. 2017. Bronze Age wool: provenance and dye investigations of Danish textiles. Antiquity 91(357).

Greenfield, Haskel J. 2005. A reconsideration of the Secondary Products Revolution in south-eastern Europe: on the origins and use of domestic animals for milk, wool, and traction in the central Balkans. In: J. Mulville and A.K. Outram (eds) The zooarchaeology of fats, oils, milk and dairying. Oxford: Oxbow. pp. 14-31. 

Grömer, Karina, (ed.) 2013. Textiles from Hallstatt: Weaving Culture in Bronze Age and Iron Age Salt Mines = Textilien Aus Hallstatt ; Gewebte Kultur Aus Dem Bronze- Und Eisenzeitlichen Salzbergwerk. (Archaeolingua 29). Budapest: Archaeolingua Alapítvány.

Helmer, Daniel and Emmanuelle Vila 2014. The Expansion of Sheep Herding and the Development of Wool Production in the Ancient Near East: An Archaeozoological and Iconographical Approach. In: Catherine Breniquet and Cécile Michel (eds) Wool Economy in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean: From the Beginnings of Sheep Husbandry to Institutional Textile Industry. (Ancient textiles series 17). Oxford and Philadelphia: Oxbow Books. pp. 22-40.

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Kirleis, Wiebke and Marta Dal Corso 2016. Trypillian subsistence economy: animal and plant exploitation. In: Johannes Müller, Knut Rassmann and Mykhailo Videiko (eds). Trypillian mega-sites and European prehistory 4100-3400 BCE. New York: Routledge. pp. 195-206.

Kuz'mina, Elena E. 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

Li, Chunxiang, Hongjie Li, Yinqiu Cui, et al. 2010. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age. BMC Biology 8 (15). pp. 1-12. (for the author's comment on their relation to the Afanasievo culture and not the Andronovo horizon (bearing the later R1a1a-Z93 haplogroup): https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-8-15/comments)

Mair, Victor H. 2006. The rediscovery and complete excavation of Ördek's Necropolis. Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) 34 (3-4). pp. 273-318.

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Mileto, Simona, Elke Kaiser, Yuri Rassamakin, Richard Evershed 2017. New insights into the subsistence economy of the Eneolithic Dereivka culture of the Ukrainian North-Pontic region through lipid residues analysis of pottery vessels. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 13. pp. 67-74.

Olsen, Birgit Anette 2018. Notes on the Indo-European vocabulary of sheep, wool and textile production. In: Digging for Words: Archaeolinguistic case studies from the XV Nordic TAG Conference held at University of Copenhagen, 16-18 April 2015. (BAR. International Series). BAR Oxford publications, pp. 69-77.

Rassamakin, Yuri 1999. The Eneolithic of the Black Sea steppe: dynamics of cultural and economic development 4500-2300 BC. In: Marsha Levine et al. (eds) Late Prehistoric Exploitation of the Eurasian Steppe (McDonald Institute Monographs). University of Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 59-182.

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Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich 2014.  Weaving Society in Late Chalcolithic Anatolia: Textile Production and Social Strategies in the 4th Millennium BC. In: Barbara Horejs and Mathias Mehofer (eds) Western Anatolia before Troy: Proto-Urbanisation in the 4th Millennium BC? Proceedings of the International Symposium held at the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria, 21‒24 November, 2012. (Oriental and European Archaeology 1). Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, pp. 421-446.

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Shishlina, Natalia I., et al. 2003. Bronze Age Textiles from the North Caucasus: New Evidence of Fourth Millennium BCE Fibres and Fabrics. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 22 (4): 331–44.

Shishlina, Natalia I. 2005. Headdress from the Catacomb Culture Grave of the Shakhaevskaya Burial Ground. Archaeological Textile Newsletter, no. 40: 6–9.

Shishlina, Natalia I. 2008. Reconstruction of the Bronze Age of the Caspian Steppes: life styles and life ways of pastoral nomads (BAR International Series 1876). Oxford: Archaeopress.

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Ţerna, Stanislav and Heghea, Sergiu 2017. Middle and Late Copper Age settlements from the Brînzeni microzone on the Prut River: older research in a modern background. Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 69, 297-325.

Vretemark, Maria et al. 2010. Subsistence strategies. In: T. Earle & K. Kristiansen (eds) Organizing Bronze Age Societies. The Mediterranean, Central Europe & Scandinavia compared. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 153-182.

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Ørsted Brandt, Luise 2014. Species identification of skins and development of sheep wool. An interdisciplinary study combining textile research, archaeology, and biomolecular methods (PhD thesis). Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen (Centre for Textile Research). 

Ørsted Brandt, Luise, Enrico Cappellini, Ulla Mannering & Anne Lisbeth Schmidt 2016. Nye artsbestemmelser af skind fra jernalderen - forhistoriske proteiner fra skindkapper fundet i danske moser. Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 2016. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark. pp. 234-247.