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Please allow some seconds to load map data. || Last update: 05-11-2018. now featuring 1872 individuals from 8200-1 BCE.

Mapping and programming by Mikkel Nørtoft. The technical functionalities of the timemap have been made with the generous help of Lê Nguyên Phương Thanh. The timebar is Jonathan Skeate’s Leaflet.timeline.

Legend:

Blue circle EHG (Eastern Hunter-Gatherers), including West Siberian Hunter-Gatherers/Neolithic and SHG (Scandinavian Hunter-gatherers, mostly EHG mixed with some WHG)
Pink circle WHG (Western Hunter-Gatherers)
Orange circle CHG (Caucasian Hunter-Gatherers) and Iran Mesolithic, Iran Neolithic, Iran Chalcolithic, etc.
Yellow circle Anatolian farmers, also known as EEF (Early European Farmers)
Green circle Levant farmers, including Natufian culture
Turquoise circle "Uralic" group (East Asian ancestry with EHG admixture)
Red square Steppe-derived R1a lineages, Y-DNA (males) defined as EHG with CHG (and some European/Anatolian Farmer DNA from c. 3300 BCE onwards) admixture. Defining subclade SNP in ( ). See R1 tree for chronological context
Red triangle Steppe-derived R1b lineages, Y-DNA (males) defined as EHG with CHG (and some European/Anatolian Farmer DNA from c. 3300 BCE onwards) admixture. Defining subclade SNP in ( ). See R1 tree for chronological context
Red circle Steppe-derived autosomal DNA ancestry, including females defined as EHG with CHG (and some European/Anatolian Farmer DNA from c. 3300 BCE onwards) admixture)
White circle Ancient East Asian ancestry
Dark Green circle Ancient South Asian ancestry (including presumed Indus Valley Culture-related ancestry)
Transparent circle The individual's ancestry is uncertain/unspecified
Grey star Equal mix of ancestry in an individual
White sheep Confirmed finds of wool
Transparent sheep (transparent) Unconfirmed/controversial finds of wool and zooarchaeological indications of wool production (see individual comments and references)
White wheel Confirmed finds of wheels
Transparent wheel (transparent) Unconfirmed/controversial finds of wheels and/or clay models of wagons suggested to have had wheels, or traction marks argued to be from wheels (see individual comments and references)


Comments

The interactive map is one of the outcomes of Thomas Olander’s research project “The Homeland: In the footprints of the early Indo-Europeans” (2015–2018), funded by the Carlsberg Foundation. The Homeland project is based at the Roots of Europe Centre, Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics, University of Copenhagen.

Each coloured dot on this map is an ancient individual sampled for DNA (1769 individuals in total from 42 scientific papers). The duration of a dot's presence on the map does NOT reflect the lifetime of an individual, but reflects only the estimated date of the individual's death/burial (from C14-dating or context/stratigraphy). The same goes for wheels and wool/animal bones. Most dates are estimated within a few hundred years (C14), while some (context/stratigraphy) are more broadly estimated. Therefore, some icons/dots on the map with long duration reflect a very broad dating, and their presence on the map should not be taken literally. Click each feature for additional information and references. Many C14 dates have not been corrected for reservoir effect and might be a few hundred years too early, which is why they sometimes predate the time period of their associated culture areas (see below).

The DNA data is collected from supplementary info and tables from various peer-reviewed articles (see bottom of this page). Most of the European Bronze Age wool is extracted and modified (given absolute dates from their reported relative dates) from the CinBA project, and the rest (including all zooarchaeological indications of wool, as well as wheel data) has been mapped manually by Mikkel Nørtoft from various articles.

The DNA layer of this map focuses on prehistoric migrations. Therefore, change in population ancestry in a region caused by intrusive individuals is weighted higher when determining the colour of a dot, although some local ancestry is retained. For example, most Bell Beaker individuals of Europe retain both some of the region's earlier hunter-gatherer and Anatolian/European Farmer ancestry (c. 50% total), but their steppe ancestry (c. 50%) which is intrusive to the region, along with the steppe ancestry in Corded Ware individuals (c. 75% steppe) in Europe, determines their colour as red.

The same goes for intrusive Anatolian farmer ancestry in the early Neolithic period of Europe, which is yellow (farmer), although it retains some local hunter-gatherer ancestry, because the farmers are intrusive to Europe. Special cases of resurgence of local ancestry after arrival of foreigners can differ from this rule, and will usually feature a special comment about this. Outlier individuals in a given population have often been given the colour corresponding to their most probable origin to highlight multiethnicity. But in any case, the user should study the referenced scientific literature and not rely on this map alone.

It should be understood that most of the individuals on this map have various mixes of ancestry, although they are only portrayed by one colour.

Also, lack of data (DNA, wool or wheels) is not evidence that these things were not present in a region, only that they have not been preserved and/or excavated and published. The burial and soil conditions in Bronze Age Denmark, for example, are extraordinarily effective for preserving wool. That is why most of the wool from 1500-1100 BCE clusters around Denmark. On the other hand, these circumstances are bad for preserving DNA, which is why DNA evidence is scarce in Denmark (so far).

A note on the Cultures layer:
The practice of drawing archaeologically defined material cultures as geographically confined areas or borders and associating them with ethnic groups is controversial to many archaeologists. Therefore, the "cultures" layer on this map is only an attempt to provide an easily understandable overview to non-archaeologists of the approximate time and geographical distribution of archaeological material cultures from various literature (see references on-click), and this layer should not be taken literally. In most cases, a link to available popular articles (mostly on Wikipedia) about these cultures has been provided on-click. NB! The Wikipedia articles do not always agree with my mapping.
The colours of these cultures are mainly based on the coloured DNA dots, but in some cases where no DNA has been published, colours are my own subjective estimates of their most probable main grouping based on other DNA, archaeological and linguistic interpretations of these cultures, and this is therefore of course very uncertain.

A note on the Languages layer:
Only language branches of the Indo-European language family are shown here, and not the specific languages. As we cannot know the precise geographical extent of languages in prehistory, we have only added labels of these language branches in a given area, and the arrow on the label should be taken litterally, but only points to an automated centre in the approximate area of a given language. More info is shown at each language label for more information and link to popular articles about this language. The date of some langauges like Indic (Rigveda) and Avestan are not attested directly in texts surviving until today, but are seen as the most archaic in their respective branches, preserved orally for many centuries in extreme detail, and the dates for these should be fairly uncontroversial. At the last year (1 BC) on the timeline, languages that appeared in writing after the Common Era have been added. Several of these are quite likely to go much further back in time, especially indicated by loanword studies, historical references, and place names, but have just not been written down until much later.



References

DNA (as it appears in the published supplementary data tables)

AllentoftNature2015 - Allentoft, M. E. et al. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522, 167–172 (2015).

Brace et al. 2018 - Brace, Selina et al. Population replacement in Early Neolithic Britain (preprint). BioRxiv (February 2018).

BroushakiScience2016 - Broushaki, Farnaz et al. Early Neolithic genomes from the Fertile Crescent. Science, (14 July 2016).

CassidyPNAS2016 - Cassidy, L. M. et al. Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 368–373 (2016).

Damgaard, Marchi et al. 2018 - de Barros, Damgaard, N. Marchi et al. 137 genomes from across the Eurasian steppes. Nature 557, 269-274 (2018).

Damgaard, Martiano, et al. 2018 - de Barros Damgaard, P. Martiano, R. et al. The first horse herders and the impact of Early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia. Science , 9 May 2018 (first release).

Feldman et al 2018 (preprint) - Feldman, Michael, et al. Late Pleistocene human genome suggests a local origin for the first farmers of central Anatolia. BioRxiv (preprint).

Fernandes et al. 2018 – Fernandes, D. M., et al. A genomic Neolithic time transect of hunter-farmer admixture in central Poland. Scientific Reports 8: 14879 (2018).

FuNature2016 - Fu, Q. et al. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe. Nature 534, 200–205 (2016).

GambaNatureCommunications2014 - Gamba, C. et al. Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory. Nat. Commun. 5, 5257 (2014).

GonzalesFortesCurrentBiology2017 - González-Fortes, Gloria, et al. Paleogenomic evidence for multi-generational mixing between Neolithic Farmers and Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers in the Lower Danube Basin. Current Biology 27, 1801-1810 (June 2017).

GuntherPNAS2015 - Günther, T. et al. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 11917-11922 (2015).

Günther et al. 2018 - Günther, Torsten, et al. Population genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia: Investigating early postglacial migration routes and high-latitude adaptation. PLoS Biol. 16(1): e2003703 (2018).

HaakLazaridis2015 - Haak, W. et al. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522, 207–211 (2015).

HaberAJHG2017 - Haber, Marc, et al. Continuity and admixture in the last five millennia of Levantine history from ancient Canaanite and present-day Lebanese genome sequences. The American Journal of Human Genetics 101, 274-282 (2017).

Harney et al. 2018 – Harney, Éadaoin et al 2018. Ancient DNA from Chalcolithic Israel reveals the role of population mixture in cultural transformation. Nature Comunications 9: 3336 (2018).

HofmanovaPNAS2016 - Hofmanová, Z. et al. Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 6886–6891 (2016).

JonesNatureCommunications2015 - Jones, E. R. et al. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians. Nat. Commun. 6, 8912 (2015).

JonesNatureCommunications2017 - Jones, E. R. et al. The Neolithic transition in the Baltic was not driven by admixture with early European farmers. Curr. Biol. 27, 576–582 (2017).

KellerNatureCommunications2012 - Keller, A. et al. New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman’s origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing. Nat. Commun. 3, 698 (2012).

KilincCurrentBiology2016 - Kılınç, G. M. et al. The demographic development of the first farmers in Anatolia. Curr. Biol. 26, 2659–2666 (2016).

Krzewinska et al. 2018. – Krzewińska, Maja et al. Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads. Science Advances 4: eaat4457 (2018).

Lamnidis et al. 2018 - Lamnidis, Thiseas, K. Majander, et al. Ancient Fennoscandian genomes reveal origin and spread of Siberian ancestry in Europe (preprint). BioRxiv (March 2018).

LazaridisNature2014 - Lazaridis, I. et al. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513, 409–413 (2014).

Lazaridis2016 - Lazaridis, I. et al. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536, 419–424 (2016).

Lazaridis(Nature)2017 - Lazaridis, I. et al. Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans. Nature 548, 214–218 (2017).

Li et al. 2010 - Li et al. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age. BMC Biology 8 (15) (2010).

Lipson2017 - Lipson, M. et al. Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers. Nature 551, 368–372 (2017).

LlorenteScience2015 - Gallego Llorente, M. et al. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa. Science 350, 820–822 (2015).

MartinianoNatureCommunications2016 - Martiniano, Rui, et al. Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons. Nature Communications 7 (10326) (January 2016).

MartinianoPLOSGenetics2017 - Martiniano, Rui, et al. The population genomics of archaeological transition in west Iberia: investigation of ancient substructure using imputation and haplotype-based models. PLOS Genetics 13 (7) (July 2017).

MathiesonNature2015 - Mathieson, Iain, et al. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature 528, 499–503 (2015).

Mathieson2017 - Mathieson, Iain, et al. The genomic history of southeastern Europe (preprint, 2nd ed.). BioRxiv (September 2017).

Mathieson et al. 2018/MathiesonNature2018 - Mathieson, Iain, et al. The genomic history of southeastern Europe. Nature 555, pp. 197–203 (08 March 2018).

Mittnik et al. 2018 - Mittnik, Alissa, et al. 2018. The genetic prehistory of the Baltic Sea region. Nature Communications 9 (1), (2018).

Narasimhan et al. 2018: Narasimhan, Vagheesh M., et al. The genomic formation of South and Central Asia (preprint). BioRxiv (March 2018).

Olalde2014 - Olalde, I. et al. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European. Nature 507, 225–228 (2014).

OlaldeMBE2015 - Olalde, I. et al. A common genetic origin for early farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and central European LBK cultures. Mol. Biol. Evol. 32, 3132–3142 (2015).

Olalde et al. 2018 - The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe. Nature 555, pages 190–196 (08 March 2018).

OmrakCurrentBiology2016 - Omrak, A. et al. Genomic evidence establishes Anatolia as the source of the European Neolithic gene pool. Curr. Biol. 26, 270–275 (2016).

ScheunemannNatureCommunications2017 - Scheunemman, Verena J., et al. Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest and increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods. Nature Communications 8 (15694) (May 2017).

SchiffelsNatureCommunications2016 - Schiffels, Stephan, et al. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history. Nature Communications 7 (10408) (January 2016).

Sikora et al 2018 – Sikora, Martin, et al. The population history of northeastern Siberia since the Pleistocene. BioRxiv (preprint) Oct. 22, 2018.

SiskaScienceAdvances2017 - Siska, Veronika, et al. Genome-wide data from two early Neolithic East Asian individuals dating to 7700 years ago. Science Advances 3 (2) (February 2017).

SkoglundScience2014 - Skoglund, P. et al. Genomic diversity and admixture differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian foragers and farmers. Science 344, 747–750 (2014).

Unterländer et al 2017 - Unterländer, Martina, et al. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe. Nature Communications 8 (14615) (March 2017).

Wang et al. 2018 - Wang, C.-C. et al. The genetic prehistory of the Greater Caucasus (preprint). BioRXiv 16 May.

 

Wheels

Bakker, Jan Albert et al. 1999. The earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles in Europe and the Near East. Antiquity 73, 778–90.

Burmeister, Stefan 2004. Neolithische und bronzezeitliche Moorfunde aus den Niederlanden, Nordwestdeutschland und Dänemark. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 321–340.

Butterlin, P. and Magueron, J.-C. 2006. Deux roues à Mari et le problème de l'invention de la roue en Mésopotamie. In: P. Pétrequin, R.-M. Arbogast, A.-M. Pétrequin, S.V. Willigen & M. Bailly (eds) Premiers chariots, premier araires. La diffusion de la traction animale en Europe pendant les IVe et IIIe millénaires avant notre ère. Paris: CNRS, pp. 317-328.

Cosma, C. et al. 2006. Preliminary dating results for ancient ceramics from Romania by means of thermoluminescence. Radiation Measurements 41, pp. 987-990.

Dinu, Marin 1981 - Clay models of wheels discovered in Copper Age cultures of Old Europe mid-fifth mellennium B.C. JIES 9 (1&2), pp. 1-14.

Gej, Aleksandr N. 2004. Der Wagen in der Novotitarovskaja-Kultur. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 177-190.

Izbitser, Elena 2017. Novokorsunskaya 2/18, a grave with a wagon: work on mistakes. Revista "Tyragetia" XI (XXVI), nr. 1, pp. 83-85.

Johannsen, N and Laursen, S. 2010. Routes and wheeled transport in late 4th–early 3rd millennium funerary customs of the Jutland peninsula: regional evidence and European Context. Prähistorische Zeitschrift 85, pp. 15–58.

Maran, Joseph 2004. Kulturkontakte und Wege der Ausbreitung der Wagentechnologie im 4. Jahrtausend v. Chr.. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 429–42

Mischka, Doris 2011. The Neolithic burial sequence at Flintbek LA 3, north Germany, and its cart tracks: a precise chronology. Antiquity 85, pp. 742–758 (including supplementary data).

Mühl, Simone 2014. 'Metals make the wheel go round': the development and diffusion of studded-tread wheels in the Ancient Near East and the Old World. In: Yannis Galanakis, et al. (eds) ΑΘΥΡΜΑΤΑ: Critical essays on the archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean in honour of E. Susan Sherratt. Oxford: Archaeopress Archaeology, pp. 159-176.

Nikolova, N.V. and Kaiser, E. 2009. The absolute chronology of the Pit Grave culture in the northern Black Sea area on the base of the first dendrochronological data. Eurasia Antiqua 15, pp. 209–240.

Novozhenov, Victor A. 2012. Communications and the earliest wheeled transport of Eurasia. Moscow: TAUS Publishing.

Parpola, Asko 2008. Proto-Indo-European speakers of the late Tripolye Culture as the inventors of wheeled vehicles: linguistic and archaeological considerations of the PIE homeland problem. In. Karlene Jones-Bley, et al. (eds) Proceedings of the 19th Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference, Los Angeles, November 2-3, 2007. (JIES Monograph 54). Washington D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, pp. 1-59.

Reingruber, Agathe and Rassamakin, Juri 2016. Zwischen Donau und Kuban: Das nordpontische Steppengebiet im 5. Jt. v. Chr. In: Vassil Nikolov and Wolfram Schier (eds) Der Schwarzmeerraum vom Neolithikum bis in die Früheisenzeit (6000–600 v. Chr.). Kulturelle Interferenzen in der zirkumpontischen Zone und Kontakte mit ihren Nachbargebieten. Rahden/Westf.: Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH, pp. 273-310.

Ruoff, U. and Jacomet, S. 2002. Die Datierung des Rades von Zürich-Akad und die stratigraphische Beziehung zu den Rädern von Zürich-Pressehaus. In: J. Köninger, M. Mainberger, H. Schlichtherle & M. Vosteen (eds) Schleife, Schlitten, Rad und Wagen. Zur Frage früher Transportmittel nördlich der Alpen. Rundgespräch Hemmenhofen 10. Oktober 2001 (Hemmenhofener Skripte 3). Gaienhofen-Hemmenhofen: Janus, pp. 35–7.

Shishlina, Natalia I. et al. 2014. Catacomb culture wagons of the Eurasian steppes. Antiquity 88, pp. 378-394.

Trifonov, V. 2004. Die Majkop-Kultur und die ersten Wagen in der südrussischen Steppe. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 167-176.

Winger, Katja and Elke Kaiser 2015. Pit graves in Bulgaria and the Yamnaya Culture. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 90(1-2), pp. 114-140.


 

Wool (and zooarchaeology)

CinBA (HERA-funded project) - Dataset of Bronze Age wool. Bibliography of the project can be downloaded here: http://cinba.net/outputs/databases/textiles/

Andersson Strand, Eva 2014. Sheep, wool and textile production. An interdisciplinary approach to the complexity of wool working. In: Catherine Breniquet & Cécile Michel (eds) Wool economy in the ancient Near East and the Aegean: From the beginnings of sheep husbandry to institutional textile industry. Oxford & Philadelphia: Oxbow Books. pp. 41-51.

Anthony, David W. and Dorcas R. Brown 2003. Eneolithic Horse Rituals and Riding in the Steppes: New Evidence. In: Marsha Levine, Colin Renfrew and Katire Boyle (eds). Prehistoric steppe adaptation and the horse. Cambride: McDonalds Institute for Archaeological Research. pp. 55-68.

Anthony, David W. 2007. The horse, the wheel and language. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Anthony, David W. et al. (eds) 2016. A Bronze Age landscape in the Russian steppes: the Samara Valley Project (Monumenta Archaeologica 37). UCLA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeological Press.

Anthony, David W. and Dorcas R. Brown 2017. Molecular archaeology and Indo-European linguistics: Impressions from new data. In Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard Hansen, Adam Hyllested, Anders Richardt Jørgensen et al. (eds), Usque ad Radices - Indo-European studies in honour of Birgit Annette Olsen, (Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European 8). Viborg, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 25–55.

Arbuckle, Benjamin S. 2014. Inequality and the origns of wool production in Central Anatolia. In: Benjamin S. Arbuckle and Sue Ann McCarty (eds) Animals and inequality in the ancient world. Boulder, CO.: University Press of Colorado.

Badalyan, Ruben, Pierre Lombard, Pavel Avetisyan et al. 2007. New data on the late prehistory of the southern Caucasus. The excavations at Aratashen (Armenia): preliminary report. In: Bertille Lyonnet (ed.) Les cultures du Caucase (VIIe-IIIe millénaires avant notre ére): Leurs relations avec le Proche-Orient. Paris: CNRS Editions. pp. 37-63.

Bălăşescu, Adrian, Emmanuelle Vila, Valentin Radu et al. 2010. Production animale et économie de subsistance au Néolithique dans la plaine del'Ararat (Arménie). Annales d’Université Valahia Târgoviste. Section d’Archéologie et d’Histoire XII (1). pp. 25-38.

Barber, Elizabeth. J. W. 1991. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Barber, Elizabeth. J. W. 1999. The mummies of Ürümchi. New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company

Bazzanella, Marta 2012. Italy: Neolithic and Bronze Age. In: Margarita Gleba and Ulla Mannering (eds) Textiles and Textiles Production in Europe: from Prehistory to AD 400. (Ancient Textiles Series 11). Oxford and Oakville: Oxbow Books, pp. 203-213.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise 1992. North European textiles until AD 1000. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Bender Jørgensen, Lise, Antoinette Rast-Eicher 2015. Searching for the earliest wools in Europe. In: K. Grömer & F. Pritchard (eds) Aspects of the Design, Production and Use of Textiles and Clothing from the Bronze Age to the Early Modern Era (NESAT XII). pp. 67-72.

Car, G. 2012. Konservatorsko-restauratorski radovi na prapovijesnom grobnom tekstilu iz tumula u Pustopolju Kupreškom. Portal 3/2012, pp. 69-80.

Darden, Bill 2001. On the question of the Anatolian origin of Indo-Hittite. In: Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite language family (Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph 38). pp. 184-228

Frachetti, Michael D. 2012. Multiregional Emergence of Mobile Pastoralism and Nonuniform Institutional Complexity across Eurasia, Current Anthropology 53 (1), pp. 1-38.

Frangipane, M et al. 2009. Arslantepe, Malatya (Turkey): textiles, tools and imprints of fabrics from the 4th to the 2nd millennium BCE. Paléorient 35, pp. 5-30.

Frei, Karin Margarita, Ulla Mannering, Kristian Kristiansen, et al. 2015. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female. Scientific Reports 5.

Frei, Karin Margarita, Ulla Mannering, Ina Vanden Berghe & Kristian Kristiansen. 2017. Bronze Age wool: provenance and dye investigations of Danish textiles. Antiquity 91(357).

Greenfield, Haskel J. 2005. A reconsideration of the Secondary Products Revolution in south-eastern Europe: on the origins and use of domestic animals for milk, wool, and traction in the central Balkans. In: J. Mulville and A.K. Outram (eds) The zooarchaeology of fats, oils, milk and dairying. Oxford: Oxbow. pp. 14-31. 

Grömer, Karina, (ed.) 2013. Textiles from Hallstatt: Weaving Culture in Bronze Age and Iron Age Salt Mines = Textilien Aus Hallstatt ; Gewebte Kultur Aus Dem Bronze- Und Eisenzeitlichen Salzbergwerk. (Archaeolingua 29). Budapest: Archaeolingua Alapítvány.

Helmer, Daniel and Emmanuelle Vila 2014. The Expansion of Sheep Herding and the Development of Wool Production in the Ancient Near East: An Archaeozoological and Iconographical Approach. In: Catherine Breniquet and Cécile Michel (eds) Wool Economy in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean: From the Beginnings of Sheep Husbandry to Institutional Textile Industry. (Ancient textiles series 17). Oxford and Philadelphia: Oxbow Books. pp. 22-40.

Hundt, H.-J. 1986. Tissus et sparteries néolithiques. In: P. Petrequin (ed.) Les sites littoreaux néolithiques de Clairveaux-les-lacs (Jura). I: Problématique générale L'exemple de la station III. Paris: Ed. de la Maison des sciences de l'homme. pp. 233-242.

Ivanova, Mariya 2013. The Black Sea and the early civilizations of Europe, the Near East and Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kirleis, Wiebke and Marta Dal Corso 2016. Trypillian subsistence economy: animal and plant exploitation. In: Johannes Müller, Knut Rassmann and Mykhailo Videiko (eds). Trypillian mega-sites and European prehistory 4100-3400 BCE. New York: Routledge. pp. 195-206.

Kuz'mina, Elena E. 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

Li, Chunxiang, Hongjie Li, Yinqiu Cui, et al. 2010. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age. BMC Biology 8 (15). pp. 1-12. (for the author's comment on their relation to the Afanasievo culture and not the Andronovo horizon (bearing the later R1a1a-Z93 haplogroup): https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-8-15/comments)

Mair, Victor H. 2006. The rediscovery and complete excavation of Ördek's Necropolis. Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) 34 (3-4). pp. 273-318.

Mallory, James P. & Douglas Q. Adams (eds). 1997. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London & Chicago: Taylor & Francis. pp. 51, 224, 341-342, 510-512, 569-574, 648-649.

Mallory, James P. & Douglas Q. Adams 2006: The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Mileto, Simona, Elke Kaiser, Yuri Rassamakin, Richard Evershed 2017. New insights into the subsistence economy of the Eneolithic Dereivka culture of the Ukrainian North-Pontic region through lipid residues analysis of pottery vessels. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 13. pp. 67-74.

Olsen, Birgit Anette 2018. Notes on the Indo-European vocabulary of sheep, wool and textile production. In: Digging for Words: Archaeolinguistic case studies from the XV Nordic TAG Conference held at University of Copenhagen, 16-18 April 2015. (BAR. International Series). BAR Oxford publications, pp. 69-77.

Rassamakin, Yuri 1999. The Eneolithic of the Black Sea steppe: dynamics of cultural and economic development 4500-2300 BC. In: Marsha Levine et al. (eds) Late Prehistoric Exploitation of the Eurasian Steppe (McDonald Institute Monographs). University of Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 59-182.

Rooijakkers, C.T. 2012. Spinning animal fibres at late Neolithic tell Sabi Abyad, Syria? Paléorient 38(1-2), pp. 93-109.

Ruscillo, Deborah 2003. Alternative Methods for Identifiying Sex From Archaeological Animal Bone. In: E. Kojabopoulou, Y. Hamilakis, P. et al. (eds) Zooarchaeology in Greece: Recents Advances. (BSA Studies 9). London: The British School at Athens. pp. 37-44.

Ryder, Michael L. 1983. Sheep and Man. London: Duckworth Press.

Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich 2014.  Weaving Society in Late Chalcolithic Anatolia: Textile Production and Social Strategies in the 4th Millennium BC. In: Barbara Horejs and Mathias Mehofer (eds) Western Anatolia before Troy: Proto-Urbanisation in the 4th Millennium BC? Proceedings of the International Symposium held at the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria, 21‒24 November, 2012. (Oriental and European Archaeology 1). Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, pp. 421-446.

Sherrat, Andrew 1997 (revised from 1983). The secondary exploitation of animals in the Old World. In: A. Sherratt (ed.) Economy and society in Prehistoric Europe: Changing perspectives. pp. 199-228. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Shishlina Natalia I., et al. 2000. Bronze Age Textiles of the Caspian Sea Maritime Steppes. In: Jeannine Davis-Kimball et al. (eds) Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age. (BAR International Series 890). Oxford: Archaeopress. pp. 109-118.

Shishlina, Natalia I., et al. 2003. Bronze Age Textiles from the North Caucasus: New Evidence of Fourth Millennium BCE Fibres and Fabrics. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 22 (4): 331–44.

Shishlina, Natalia I. 2005. Headdress from the Catacomb Culture Grave of the Shakhaevskaya Burial Ground. Archaeological Textile Newsletter, no. 40: 6–9.

Shishlina, Natalia I. 2008. Reconstruction of the Bronze Age of the Caspian Steppes: life styles and life ways of pastoral nomads (BAR International Series 1876). Oxford: Archaeopress.

Shishlina, Natalia I., et al. 2009. Paleoecology, subsistence, and 14C chronology of the Eurasian Caspian steppe Bronze Age. Radiocarbon 51 (2), pp. 481-499.

Shishlina, Natalia I. et al. 2012. Isotopes, Plants, and Reservoir Effects: Case Study from the Caspian Steppe Bronze Age. Radiocarbon 54 (3-4), pp. 1-12.

von Stokar, Walter 1938. Spinnen und weben bei den Germanen. Eine vorgeschichtlich-naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung. Leipzig: Curt Kabitzsch Verlag.

Ţerna, Stanislav and Heghea, Sergiu 2017. Middle and Late Copper Age settlements from the Brînzeni microzone on the Prut River: older research in a modern background. Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 69, 297-325.

Vretemark, Maria et al. 2010. Subsistence strategies. In: T. Earle & K. Kristiansen (eds) Organizing Bronze Age Societies. The Mediterranean, Central Europe & Scandinavia compared. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 153-182.

Young, R. and H. Fazeli 2008. Interpreting Animal Bones in Iran: Considering New Animal Bone Assemblages from Three Sites in the Qazvin Plain within a Broader Geographical and Chronological Perspective. Paleorient 34(2). pp. 153-172.

Zhang, X., Good, I., and Laursen, R. 2007. Characterization of dyestuffs in ancient textiles from Xinjiang. Journal of  Archaeological Science 35 (4), pp. 1095–1103.

Ørsted Brandt, Luise 2014. Species identification of skins and development of sheep wool. An interdisciplinary study combining textile research, archaeology, and biomolecular methods (PhD thesis). Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen (Centre for Textile Research). 

Ørsted Brandt, Luise, Enrico Cappellini, Ulla Mannering & Anne Lisbeth Schmidt 2016. Nye artsbestemmelser af skind fra jernalderen - forhistoriske proteiner fra skindkapper fundet i danske moser. Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 2016. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark. pp. 234-247.


Archaeological cultures

Aikio, Ante 2012. An essay on Saami ethnolinguistic prehistory. In: Riho Grünthal & Petri Kallio (eds.) A Linguistic map of prehistoric Northern Europe. SUST / MSFOu no. 266.

Anthony, David and Dorcas Brown. 2005. The Samara Vally project. Eurasia Antiqua Band 11.

Anthony, David W. 2007. The horse, the wheel and language: how Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Anthony, David W. 2010. The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000–3500 BC. Vincenza, Italy: Princeton University Press.

Anthony, David W., et al. 2016. A Bronze Age Landscape in the Russian Steppes: The Samara Valley Project. Monumenta Archaeologica vol. 37. Los Angeles, California: UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.

Bergerbrant, Sophie. 2007. Bronze Age Identities: Costume, Conflict and Contact in Northern Europe 1600–1300 BC. Stockholm: University of Stockholm Ph.D. thesis.

Bolohan, Neculai 2011. Resuming the research of the Coslogeni group (Late Bronze Age) settlement systems. First step. Cultură Şi Civilizaţie La Dunărea De Jos 27, pp. 128-138.  

Burić, Marcel 2015. Problems of the Late Neolithic Absolute Chronology in Eastern Croatia. In: A. Anders, et al. (eds) Neolithic and Copper Age between the Carpathians and the Aegean Sea : Chronoligies and Technologies from the 6th to the 4th Millennium BCE ; International Workshop Budapest 2012. Bonn: Habelt, pp. 143-156.

Chernienko, Yo. A. 2014. Sabatinovskaya kul'tura ve sisteme drevnostei bronzovogo veka yoga Vostochnoi Evropы. Stratum Plus: Arkheologiya i kul'turnaya antropologiya 2.

Ciugudean, Horia 2012. The chronology of the Gáva culture in Transylvania. In: Wojciech Blajer (ed.) Peregrinationes archaeologicae in Asia et Europa Joanni Chochorowski dedicatae. Kraków: Profil-Archeo, pp. 229-243.

Coles, John M. and Anthony F. Harding 2015 (1979) (eds). The Bronze Age in Europe: An introduction to the prehistory of Europe c. 2000-700 BC. London and New York: Routledge.

Constantin, Claude 2010. La Hoguette, Limburg and the Mesolithic. In: B. Vanmontfort, et al. (eds) Pots, Farmers and Foragers: Pottery traditions and social interaction in the earliest Neolithic of the Lower Rhine Area. Leiden University Press, pp. 41-49

Courcier, Antoine 2014. Ancient Metallurgy in the Caucasus From the Sixth to the Third Millennium BCE. In: B.W. Roberts, C. P. Thornton (eds.), Archaeometallurgy in Global Perspective. New York: Springer, 579-664.

Cunliffe, Barry 2008. Europe between the oceans 9000 BC-AD 1000. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Fitzpatrick, Andrew 2013. The arrival of the Bell Beaker Set in Britain and Ireland in: J.T Koch and B. Cunliffe (eds) Celtic from the West 2. Rethinking the Bronze Age and the arrival of Indo-European in Atlantic Europe, Oxford: Oxbow/Celtic Studies Publications XVI, pp. 41-70.

Fokkens, Harry 2012. Background to Beakers. Inquiries into regional cultural backgrounds of the Bell Beaker complex. Leiden: Sidestone Press.

Furholt, Martin 2003. Die absolutchronologische Datierung der Schnurkeramik in Mitteleuropa und Südskandinavien. Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH, Bonn.

Furholt, Martin 2008. Pottery, cultures, people? The European Baden material re-examined. Antiquity 82, pp. 617-628.

Furholt, Martin 2014. Upending a ‘Totality’. Re-evaluating Corded Ware Variability in Late Neolithic Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 80, pp. 67–86.

Gabor, Sánta 2013. Metal Analysis of Koszider and Tumulus Culture Bronzes: Contents, Similarities and the Question of Source Area. In: Sándor Berecki (ed.) Bronze Age crafts and craftsmen in the Carpathian Basin : proceedings of the international colloquium from Târgu Mureș, 5-7 October 2012. Târgu Mureș : Editura Mega, pp. 77-91.

Gej, Aleksandr N. 2004. Der Wagen in der Novotitarovskaja-Kultur. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 177-190.

Haywood, John 2001 (2009). The Historical Atlas of the Celtic World. UK: Thames and Hudson.

Heyd, Volker 2012. Yamnaya groups and tumuli west of The Black Sea. Ancestral Landscapes. Burial mounds in the Copper and Bronze Ages. Proceedings of the International Conference held in Udine, May 15th-18th 2008. Persée, MOM Éditions, pp. 185-201.

Heyd, Volker. 2017. Kossinna’s smile. Antiquity 91(356), pp. 348–359.

Heynowski, Ronald 1996. Die imitierten Wendelringe als Leitform der frühen vorrömischen Eisenzeit. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 71 (1), pp. 28-45.

Holmqvist, Elisabeth, et al. 2018. Tracing grog and pots to reveal neolithic Corded Ware Culture contacts in the Baltic Sea region (SEM-EDS, PIXE). Journal of Archaeological Science 91, pp. 77-91.

Häkkinen, Jaakko 2012a. Early contacts between Uralic and Yukaghir. Per Urales ad Orientem. Iter polyphonicum multilingue. Festskrift tillägnad Juha Janhunen på hans sextioårsdag den 12 februari 2012. Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia = Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 264. Helsinki. pp. 91–101.

Iversen, Rune 2014. Transformation of Neolithic Societies - an East Danish perspective on the 3rd millennium BC. København: Københavns Universitet, Det Humanistiske Fakultet. (PhD.-thesis).

Jaeger, Mateusz and Łukasz Pospieszny 2012. Tumulus culture barrows in the Polish lowlands: the case of the cemetery in Smoszew, pp. 97-106.

Kadrow, Sɫawomir and Marzena Szmyt 1996. Absolute chronology of the eastern group of Globular Amphora culture. In: Mikhail M. Charniauski, et al. (eds.) Eastern Exodus of the Globular Amphora culture people. Baltic-Pontic Studies 4, pp. 103-111.

Kaiser, Elke 2013. Import, Imitation and Interaction: A Critical Review of the Chronology and Significance of Cross Footed Bowls of the Third Millennium BC in Southeastern and Eastern Europe. In: Volker Heyd, et al. (eds.) Transitions To The Bronze Age: Interregional Interaction and Socio-Cultural Change in the Third Millennium BC Carpathian Basin and Neighbouring Regions. Archaeolingua Alapítvány. Budapest: Prime Rate Kft., pp. 139-152.

Kaiser, Jasmin and Gabriela Manschus 2013. 'Häuser' für die Ewigkiet. Archäologie in Deutschland 6. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft (WBG), pp. 8-13.

Kallio, Petri 2015. The language contact situation in prehistoric Northeastern Europe. In: Robert Mailhammer, Theo Vennemann & Birgit Anette Olsen (eds.) The linguistic Roots of Europe: origin and development of European languages. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, pp. 77-103.

Klima, László 1996. The Linguistic Affinity of the Volgaic Finno-Ugrians and Their Ethnogenesis (early 4th millennium BC - late 1st millennium AD). Societas Historiae Fenno-Ugricae.

Knipper, Corina et al. 2015. Superior in Life-Superior in Death. Dietary Distinction of Central European Prehistoric and Medieval Elites. Current Anthropology 56(4), pp. 579-589.

Kośko, Aleksander and Victor Klochko 1998. "Trzciniec" - borderland of Early Bronze

civilizations of Eastern and Western Europe? Baltic-Pontic Studies 6, pp. 190-202.

Kristiansen, Kristian & Thomas B. Larsson. 2005. The Rise of Bronze Age Society: Travels, Transmissions and Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kul'kova, M. A., et al. 2001. Chronology and palaeoclimate of prehistoric sites in western Dvina-Lovat’ area of North-Western Russia. Geochronometria 20, pp. 87-94.

Lamnidis, Thiseas, K. Majander, et al. 2018 (March). Ancient Fennoscandian genomes reveal origin and spread of Siberian ancestry in Europe (preprint). BioRxiv.

Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte Halle. (Collection of distribution maps of archaeological cultures) URL: https://st.museum-digital.de/index.php?style=liste&startwert=0&t=listen&tag_id=14830

Larsson, Åsa M. 2009. Breaking and making bodies and pots: Material and Ritual Practices in Sweden in the Third Millennium BC (doctoral dissertation). Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Aun 40. Uppsala.

Lavento, Mika 2012. Cultural Reproduction from Late Stone Age to Early Metal Age – a short discussion of the cultures in Finland, the northern part of Fennoscandia and Karelia, 3200 cal. BC to 1500 cal. BC. In: Chistopher Prescott & Håkon Glørstad (eds.) Becoming European: The transformation of third millennium Northern and Western Europe. Oxford and Oakville: Oxbow, pp. 144-155.

Loũgas, Lembi, et al. 2007. New dates for the Late Neolithic Corded Ware Culture burials and early husbandry in the East Baltic region. Archaeofauna 16. pp. 21–31.

Makhortykh, S. V. 2004. The North Black Sea Steppes In The Cimmerian Epoch. In: E.M. Scott, et al. (eds.) Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 35-44.

Mallory, James P. & Douglas Q. Adams (eds). 1997. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London & Chicago: Taylor & Francis.

Martens, Jes 2014. Jastorf and Jutland (On the northern extent of the so-called Jastorf Culture). In: Jochem Brandt, et al. (eds) Das Jastorf-Konzept und die vorrömische Eisenzeit im nördlichen Mitteleuropa. Hamburg: Archäologisches Museum Hamburg, pp. 245-267.

Morgunova, Nina L. 2015. Pottery from the Volga area in the Samara and South Urals region from Eneolithic to Early Bronze Age. Documenta Praehistorica XLII, pp. 311-319.

Murashkin, Anton I., et al. 2016. Kola Oleneostrovskiy Grave Field: A Unique Burial Site in the European Arctic. New Sites, New Methods. The Finnish Antiquarian Society, Iskos 21, Helsinki, pp. 187-199.

Nordqvist, Kerkko and Piritta Häkälä 2014. Distribution of Corded Ware in the areas north of the Fulf of Finland - an update. Estonian Journal of Archaeology 18, pp. 3-29.

Olalde et al. 2018. The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe. Nature 555, pp. 190–196.

Parpola, Asko. 2012. Formation of the Indo-European and Uralic (Finno-Ugric) language families in the light of archaeology: Revised and integrated ‘total’ correlations. In: Riho Grünthal & Petri Kallio (eds.), A linguistic map of prehistoric Northern Europe (Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia = Mémoires de La Société Finno-Ougrienne 266). Helsinki: Société Finno-Ougrienne, pp. 119–184.

Peterson, David L. 2011. Archaeology and value: Prehistoric copper and bronze metalwork in the Caucasus. Studii de Preistorie 8, pp. 111-121.

Piličiauskas, Gytis 2010. Echoes of the Dagger Period in Lithuania, 2350-1500 cal BC. Estonian Journal of Archaeology 14, pp. 3-21.

Pokutta, Dalia. 2015. Bioarchaeology of Social Inequality in the Unětice Culture: A case study. In: Paulina Suchowska-Ducke, Samantha Scott Reiter & Helle Vandkilde (eds.) Forging identities: the mobility of culture in Bronze Age Europe: report from a Marie Curie project 2009-2012 with concluding conference at Aarhus University, Moesgaard 2012 (BAR International Series 2771–2772). Oxford, United Kingdom: British Archaeological Reports Ltd., pp. 111–119.  

Prescott, Christopher 2012. No longer north of the beakers. Modeling an interpretative platform for third millennium transformations in Norway. In: H. Fokkens. & F. Nicolis (eds.) Background to Beakers. Inquiries into regional cultural backgrounds of the Bell Beaker complex. Leiden: Sidestone Press, pp. 37-61.

Rajković, Dragana and Jaqueline Balen 2016. Sarvaš-neolitičko i eneolitičko naselje II/Sarvaš-Neolithic and Eneolithic settlement II. Osijek: Muzej Slavonije.

Sachsse, Claudia 2012. Burial Mounds in the Baden Culture: Aspects of Local Developments and Outer Impacts. In: Ancestral Landscapes. Burial mounds in the Copper and Bronze Ages. Proceedings of the International Conference held in Udine, May 15th-18th 2008. Persée, MOM Éditions, pp. 127-134.

Salanova, Laure 2016. Behind the warriors: Bell Beakers and identities in Atlantic Europe (third millennium B.C.). In John T. Koch and Barry Cunliffe (eds) Celtic from the West 3: Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages - questions of shared language. Oxford, UK: Oxbow, pp. 13-34.

Sheridan, Alison 2007. Scottish Beaker dates: the good, the bad and the ugly. In: Mats Larsson and Michael Parker Pearson (eds.) From Stonehenge to the Baltic : living with cultural diversity in the third millennium BC. BAR International Series 1692. Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 91-123.

Shishlina, Natalia I., et al. 2014. Reservoir effect of archaeological samples from steppe Bronze Age cultures in Southern Russia. Radiocarbon 56, pp. 767-778.

Szmyt, Marzena 2010. Between West and East: people of the Globular Amphora Culture in Eastern Europe: 2950-2350 BC. (Baltic-Pontic Studies 8).

Sørensen, Lasse 2015. From hunter to farmer in Northern Europe: Migration and adaptation during the Neolithic and Bronze Age. University of Copenhagen, Humanities. Acta Archaeologica 85(1-3).

Tarasov, Alexey 2015. Spatial separation between manufacturing and consumption of stone axes as an evidence of craft specialization in prehistoric Russian Karelia. Estonian Journal of Archaeology 19. 83-109.

Trifonov, V. 2004. Die Majkop-Kultur und die ersten Wagen in der südrussischen Steppe. In: M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (eds) Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Mainz: Isensee, pp. 167-176.

Váczi, Gabor 2013. Burial of the Late Tumulus–Early Urnfield Period from the Vicinity of Nadap, Hungary. In: Alexandra Anders and Gabriella Kulcsár (eds.) Moments in Time Papers Presented to Pál Raczky on His 60th Birthday. Budapest: Robinco Kft., pp. 817-830.

Vandkilde, Helle 2005. A Review of the Early Late Neolithic Period in Denmark: Practice, Identity and Connectivity. www.jungstein.SITE.de, pp. 1-51.

Vandkilde, Helle 2014. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural Warriorhood and a Carpathian Crossroad in the Sixteenth Century BC. European Journal of Archaeology 17 (4), pp. 602-633.

Vang Petersen, Peter 2014. Flint fra Danmarks Oldtid. Forlaget Museerne.dk.

Wang, Chuan-Chao, et al. 2018. The genetic prehistory of the Greater Caucasus (preprint). BioRXiv 16 May.

Whittle, Alasdair, et al. 2002. In the beginning: new radiocarbon dates for the early Neolithic in Northern Serbia and South-East Hungary. Antaeus 25, pp. 63-117.

Whittle, Alasdair, et al. 2016. A Vinča potscape: formal chronological models for the use and development of Vinča ceramics in South-East Europe. Documenta Praehistorica XLIII, pp. 1-60.

Wlodarczak, Piotr 2016. Towards the Bronze Age in south-eastern Poland (2300-2000 BC). In: Przemysław Urbańczyk (ed.) The past societies 2: 5500–2000 BC - Polish lands from the first evidence of human presence to the early Middle Ages. Warszawa: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences, pp. 278-297.

Woidich, Manfred 2014. The Western Globular Amphora Culture. A new model for its emergence and expansion. Journal of Ancient Studies 3, pp. 67-85.


Languages

Andersen, Henning. 1998. Slavic. In Anna Giacalone Ramat & Paolo Ramat (eds.), The Indo-European languages, 415–453. London and New York: Routledge.

Derksen, Rick. 2014. Etymological dictionary of the Baltic inherited lexicon. Boston, MA: Brill.

Fortson, Benjamin W. 2010. Indo-European language and culture: an introduction. (2nd ed). Chichester, UK and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Gimbutas 1963. The Balts. London: Thames & Hudson.

Haywood, John 2009 (2001). Atlas of the Celtic world. London: Thames and Hudson.

Kloekhorst, Alwin. 2008. Etymological dictionary of the Hittite inherited lexicon. Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill.

Kroonen, Guus, Gojko Barjamovic, and Michaël Peyrot 2018. Linguistic supplement to Damgaard et al. 2018: Early Indo-European languages, Anatolian, Tocharian and Indo-Iranian.
URL: https://zenodo.org/record/1240524#.W1sam9IzbIU

Mallory, James P. 1989. In search of the Indo-Europeans: language, archaeology and myth. reprint London: Thames and Hudson.

Mallory, James P. 2013. The Indo-Europeanization of Atlantic Europe. In John T. Koch & Barry W. Cunliffe (eds.), Celtic from the West 2: rethinking the Bronze Age and the arrival of Indo-European in Atlantic Europe, 17–40. (Celtic Studies Publications XVI). Oxford, UK ; Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books.

Mallory, James P. & Douglas Q. Adams (eds.). 1997. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London and Chicago: Taylor and Francis.

Mallory, James P. & Douglas Q. Adams 2006: The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Mallory, James P. & Victor H. Mair 2000. The Tarim mummies: ancient China and the mystery of the earliest peoples from the west. London: Thames & Hudson.

Markey, Tom. 2001. A Tale of Two Helmets: The Negau A and B Inscriptions. Journal of Indo-European Studies 29(1/2). 69–172.

Martínez, Javier and Michiel de Vaan 2014. Introduction to Avestan. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Matasović, Ranko. 2009. Etymological dictionary of proto-Celtic. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Nielsen, Hans Frede 2000. The Early Runic language of Scandinavia: studies in Germanic dialect geography. Heidelberg: C. Winter.

Olsen, Birgit Anette 1999. The noun in Biblical Armenian. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.

Olsen, Birgit Anette (handout). Introduktion til klassisk armensk. (lecture handout).

Windfuhr, Gernot (ed.) 2009. The Iranian Languages. London and New York: Routledge.